Direct & Indirect Speech

Direct Speech คือประโยคที่ยกคำพูดที่ผู้พูดกล่าวขึ้นเอง การกล่าวในลักษณะนี้เป็นการยกคำพูดของผู้พูดมาทั้งหมดโดยไม่มีการดัดแปลงใดๆ เช่น

John said, " I'm going to school."              
Joe says to the dog, "Get out."                  
"I've lived here for four years," said Mary.

Indirect Speech หรือ Reported Speech เป็นการยกคำพูดของผู้อื่นมาเล่าเป็นคำพูดของเราเอง


การทำ Direct Speech --> Indirect Speech

1. เปลี่ยน Tense ในลักษณะ more past คือ

Tense (Direct Speech)
Tense (Indirect Speech)

Present Simple Tense
[V1]
Present Continuous
[is/am/are + V.ing]
Present Perfect
[has/have + V3]
Past Simple
[V2]
Future Simple
[will/ shall + Vรากคำ]

Past Simple Tense
[V2]
Past Continuous
[was/were + V.ing]
Past Perfect
[had + V3]
Past Perfect
[had + V3]
Future in the past
[would /should + Vรากคำ]


Ex : Direct : "I get up at six o'clock," said John.                         
    Indirect : John said that he got up at six o'clock.           

          Direct : "I have lived with my uncle for five years," said he.
                     Indirect : He said that he had lived with his uncle for five years.

      Direct : Mac said, "I will go to France tomorrow."          
                Indirect : Mac said that he would go to France the next day.


2. เปลี่ยนคำสรรพนาม

   เปลี่ยน   I / me / my / mine / myself ----> คนพูด                                        
we /us / our / ours ----> พวกคนพูด                             
you / your / yours ----> คนฟัง / พวกคนฟัง                  

  Ex : Direct :   "I get up at six o'clock," said John.                       
         Indirect : John said that he got up at six o'clock.              

       Direct :   Tom and his friend said, "We like basketball." 
               Indirect : Tom and his friend said that they liked basketball.


3. คำแสดงระยะใกล้-ไกล ของเวลาและสถานที่

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

this
these
here
now
ago
today
tonight
tomorrow
next week
next year
yesterday
last week
last year
last night

that
those
there
then
before
that day
that night
the following day / the next day
the following week / the week after
the following year / the year after
the previous day/ the day before
the previous week/ the week before
the previous year/ the year before
the previous night/ the night before

Ex : Direct :   "She is waiting here," said Mac.                        
    Indirect : Mac said that she was waiting there.           
       
Direct : "I bought a new novel yesterday," said Peter.
                            Indirect : Peter said that he had bought a new novel the day before.


[Exercise 1 ,Exercise 2, Exercise 3, Exercise 4, Exercise 5]
[ Exercises จาก เว็บไซต์ที่น่าสนใจ ]

Indirect Speech แบบประโยคคำถาม
Indirect Speech แบบประโยคคำสั่ง / ประโยคขอร้อง